Introduction of southern plants to the north
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How to tame southern cultures in the northern garden
Japanese quince and chestnut
Gardeners, when acquiring a plant, always try to find out whether it belongs to a particular species or variety, but usually they almost do not pay attention to which subspecies or form it belongs to, and even more so to where, from which region, this plant was delivered. This is the reason for many failures in the cultivation and introduction of plants.
This is especially true of those species or varieties that have a vast distribution area. Botanists, foresters and breeders have long known that it is not recommended to move even seeds, let alone cuttings and seedlings, more than 100-200 km from the place where their parents grow. Otherwise, they will grow much worse than local ones.
For example, Scots pine seedlings, the same as in our North-West, but grown from seeds taken near Kursk and brought to the Leningrad Region, will freeze here and grow poorly, although the locals do not suffer at all. The same thing happens with many varieties.
That is why it is not recommended to purchase seedlings of the same varieties that have been growing in our country for a long time, for example, Antonovka or Autumn striped, etc., but grown somewhere in the south - in Ukraine, in Moldova, in the black earth regions. In part, this applies even to plants brought from the middle lane. The seedlings grown there look more attractive than our thin twigs - powerful, tall, nice to look at. But believe me - they will grow with us much worse.
They will be chilly, beaten by frosts, and in a few years they will lag behind the seemingly unsightly seedlings from local nurseries. Do not pursue the appearance, do not buy large-sized seedlings, especially on the market. They are southerners. They should be purchased only in local nurseries - this is safer. As you can see, cases with pine and apple varieties are examples of pure acclimatization, since they have a vast area, which includes both regions.
The specimens transferred so far will have to adapt to new conditions for a long time, and this is fraught with lagging in growth and development, and sometimes death. Of course, some plant species, although they are southern, are so winter-hardy by nature that they may well grow in our North, for example, common lilac and Hungarian introduced (transferred to a new place of residence) without acclimatization, but this is rather an exception to the rule ...
But even then we obviously do not have enough summer warmth for them, at home they are accustomed to a longer growing season. That is why, unlike our birches and aspens, they stand in green foliage until the very frost. And, apparently, they will not soon fully adapt to our climate. Some rather plastic southern species can be introduced gradually, moving north and north with their simultaneous acclimatization, i.e. adaptation to local conditions.
However, this process is possible only with compulsory seed reproduction, moreover, with seeds taken without fail from the northern border of their previous stage of introduction and acclimatization. This happened, for example, with white acacia (its more correct name is pseudo-acacia robinia). Initially, it was introduced on the Black Sea coast, then it was promoted to the Black Earth region, then to the Middle Belt, and finally to the Northwest.
Now it grows well in the Leningrad region, but only if it is bred with local seeds. If you sow seeds taken from the south, then most of the seedlings will die, and the rest will freeze along the line of the snow cover. The reason is that they did not undergo acclimatization, did not adapt to northern conditions. If we want to move them north, they will have to go through the whole long journey of getting used to new conditions again.
So the introduction is the relocation of any plant species to new territories, where they did not grow before. In turn, it is subdivided into naturalization and domestication. The first is when a plant is planted in the wild, and it is very plastic, and the conditions are as close as possible to its needs, or even coincide with the conditions of its homeland.
So, in the conditions of the Leningrad region, some species of larch, Siberian pine (called cedar in our country), Weymutov pine and some other species can be planted in nature, and they will grow and even multiply without further human intervention. Domestication is not only the transfer of a plant to a new habitat, but also its domestication.
For example, most of our vegetable and fruit plants are not only introduced - relocated to new conditions, but also domesticated. And they can grow in new conditions only under the supervision and with the support of a person, without his leaving, they will die and disappear without a trace. Such are, for example, cucumbers, their homeland is hot India; peppers - from Central America, pear - from the Caucasus, etc.
But the apple tree is ours, local, however, the northernmost border of its natural distribution runs along the North-West, its center is approximately the Kursk region, and it is from there that most of its folk varieties are. The same can be said about currants - they are local in origin, therefore they are so winter-hardy. Cherries and plums are from the Caucasus.
But it is interesting that some domesticated plants, both local (the same currant) and introduced (irgairga, chokeberry) can run wild, moving again into the wild, where their seeds are usually carried by birds. From the apple cores scattered by people, apple trees often appear along the roads.
White acacia reached the Leningrad region
Many gardeners would like to engage in introduction (first of all, of course, domestication, and acclimatization, because it is much easier than breeding, and is available to almost everyone), but they do not know, in general, not complicated rules for their implementation. Here they are:
1. It is practically pointless to transplant adult plants and their parts (cuttings, etc.), there will be no sense. Transplanting young seedlings is somewhat more promising, but even when planting them, luck is too rare and accidental. Plants should be propagated by seeds only during introduction and acclimatization.
2. It is desirable to take seeds from the northern border of the plant. Or, in a high-altitude plan, from specimens growing high in the mountains.
3. You should sow a lot. Having sown hundreds and thousands, one can hope to select several winter-hardy plants with tasty fruits (or other useful properties) that have managed to adapt to new, more severe conditions for them. Dozens of seeds usually do nothing.
4. Seeds are best sown fresh, not dried, freshly removed from the fruit, or stored in sphagnum or damp sand. Don't sow frail seeds.
5. It is better to sow seeds before winter, and not stratify. If you do not want or cannot in the beds, then sow in boxes with earth, which then must be put on the street (but not on the balcony) and covered with snow. Already during this period, even inside the seed, future plants begin to adapt to new living conditions.
6. The sprouted seedlings must be looked after (in the minimum required volume): weed, loosened, watered. But they should not be fertilized, or they will be pampered, less resilient, and eventually perish. But you should not plant on too thin soil that is not suitable for this species.
7. During domestication and acclimatization of more southerly plants, and this is almost always the case, they should be sown and transplanted to places protected from northern and northwestern winds, and generally in a calm place. Wind always negatively affects the results of the introduction.
8. In many plant species, seedlings and young seedlings are less resistant to unfavorable conditions (first of all, to frost and frost), therefore, in order for them to get stronger, they can be slightly covered for a year or two. But if they suffer greatly at an older age, such plants must be ruthlessly discarded.
9. One should always strive to obtain seeds from introduced plants as early as possible and sow them. Plants of the second, and even more so of the third generation, will be much more adapted to local conditions, which will already be native to them. As a result, they will hardly suffer from unfavorable factors, they will become the founders of a new, stable form. And future generations will be even more adaptable.
Cherry - Caucasian guest
The most promising breeds for domestication and acclimatization in the Northwest may be: black elderberry, white mulberry and fodder, quince, especially if it is Severnaya variety seeds, southern varieties of cherry, sweet cherry, plum, apple, pear and other fruit species.
So if you want to grow something new, unusual in yourself - do not spare the seeds and labor, and everything will work out. Stock up only with patience, you will need a lot of it. I.V. Michurin, by the way, sowed seeds in poods during the introduction and acclimatization! True, then he turned to selection, when only dozens of seeds could be selected for sowing. But this is a much more complicated matter.
candidate of agricultural sciences
Lighting on the window. Window sill: pros and cons
- South window
- Shading plants
- On the south window
- This can be done by shading in a variety of ways.
- East and West Windows
- North window
- Classification of plants according to their requirements for sunlight
- 1 Reduction of illumination in winter
- 1.1 Plants having a dormant stage
- 1.2 Plants that do not need rest
- Related Posts
In many apartments, the windows of the living rooms face the south side of the house. As a rule, these are large windows, and many plants can be placed on the windowsills, which are brightly lit by the sun from noon to evening on sunny days.
Plants that are familiar to you from your travels to the south feel great here: bougainvillea with luxurious flowers, hibiscus, bokarnea (Beausarpea recurvata), yucca (Yucca), pittosporum (Pittosporum tobira). The south window can become a green and blooming link between the house and the garden.
Unfortunately, most of these exotic plants are not easy to cultivate. First of all, problems arise in winter. Of course, there are also more hardy types for the southern windows. For example, such plants that feel good in any place: sansevieria (Sansevieria), chlorophytum (Chlorophytum), unassuming indoor nettle, or Blum's coleus (Coleus blumei, hybrids), spurge (Euphorbia milii). And if you like cacti, then on the south window you can arrange a multi-tiered cactus garden. Please be aware of the following.
- On sunny days, the temperature near the southern windows rises greatly, and the plants located here need to be watered and sprayed frequently, but not at noon!
- The soil overheats quickly in black plastic pots, so use ceramic pots for southern windows. You can put dark pots in light containers.
- If you have a bottom hung window or a vent, keep them open during the summer. Otherwise, hot air will stagnate.
Shading plantsShading plants
On the south window
More plants can be placed on the south window if you turn the stinging direct sunlight into pleasant, diffused light.
This can be done by shading in a variety of ways.
- The easiest way is to use loose shutters, external blinds, awnings.
- Even faster and easier: curtains made of fabric or paper, blinds (be careful: metal blinds should not touch plants, because they get very hot), frames covered with canvas are possible.
- Temporarily: newspaper or cardboard.
East and West Windows
Most of the apartments face east and west windows of bedrooms, nurseries, dining rooms and study rooms, where soft morning and evening sunlight penetrates. As a rule, there are not very many plants in these rooms, but you could change the situation. For most indoor crops, there is nothing better than windows facing east or west. It is so light here that almost all indoor plants, both decorative flowering and all decorative foliage, feel comfortable. The atmosphere is comparatively warm, but there are no rays of the scorching midday sun. Those species that are very fond of sunlight can be placed close to the glass itself, and shade-loving ones can be slightly moved away from the window glass.
The windows of the kitchen and bathroom usually face the north, sometimes the living room. The windows are mostly small on the windowsills, coolness and shade. Such windows are not justly infamous. Of course, there will not be a lush floral abundance, as on the south windows, but they can look like a real green jungle with individual splashes of color. For example, put on the windowsill monstera (Monstera deliciosa) and kentiu palm (Howeia), and between them - ferns and salt production (Soleirolia soleirolii). Hang a pots with ivy on the wall (Hedera helix) or with grape ivy, or cissus (Cissus) Place blooming begonias or fuchsias on the shelf.
Just do not move the plants away from the north window, into an area of completely insufficient lighting.
Those who grow plants on northern windows are pleased to report that species that get by with poor lighting are, as a rule, (with the exception of ferns) easy to cultivate, healthy and strong plants, rarely susceptible to diseases and very unpretentious in care.
My advice If you like decorative flowering plants, put them on the north window for a short time. After 2 weeks, return your pets to a well-lit old place to come to their senses.
Classification of plants according to their requirements for sunlight
In order to use the above data correctly, you must know what kind of lighting your plants require. They can be roughly divided into groups, and to determine the light regime in each group, we will use not suites, but the generally accepted terms: "sun", "partial shade" and "shadow" and, accordingly, recommend the placement of plants in the apartment.
- Plants requiring bright lighting with a strength of 1500-2000 lux and more, should be located on a sunny window facing south.
- Plants requiring diffused light about 1000 lux, put in a shady place in the floor on a window facing east or oriented to the west.
- Plants requiring low light (500-700 lux), can be placed in a shady place, on a north-facing window.
Sun, partial shade and shade
In botany, in addition to the indicators in suites, three other concepts have been established to determine the light regime of plants. According to these terms, light-loving plants like a sunny place always mean a window facing south. Less demanding plants prefer partial shade, which many associate with windows facing west and east. Finally, plants that are shade tolerant thrive on a north-facing window.
You must know
These concepts are not entirely accurate. The words "semi-shaded place" are already misleading. It would be more correct to replace them with a "bright place", because plants suitable for it require bright diffused light, but cannot stand the hot midday sun on the southern windows. The division according to the cardinal points is also not always fair: you need to take into account the environment. If there is a tree in front of a window facing south, such a window can no longer be called "sunny", but only "light".A window facing west, onto a covered balcony or loggia, is sometimes darker than a north-facing window. The illumination is influenced by both the landscape and the area of residence. The south window on a closely built-up street, and even on the first floor of a house, is always less "sunny" than in a detached house.
1 Reduction of illumination in winter
Reduced light in winter
In the fall, you should be especially careful with plant placement. The days are getting shorter, the sun is rare, the illumination of the pets is decreasing.
1.1 Plants having a dormant stage
Many crops are naturally prepared for the low-light season. They do not grow or grow very slowly, i.e. are at rest. In these weeks, when the conditions for further development are unsatisfactory, you must do everything so that the plants go through the dormant period normally. Put them in a cool place, water them little by little, do not feed them. If the sill of the southern window turns out to be the coolest, it does not matter: in winter, even shade-loving views can be made here and the winter sun will not harm them.
1.2 Plants that do not need rest
Problems arise with tropical exotic crops, which in their homeland are accustomed to bright sunlight throughout the year. How can we help them in winter? Try as best you can to provide them with poor winter light.
Garden of the North Ivan Dubrovin, 2013
No one doubts that fresh fruits and vegetables are tasty and healthy, so many strive to plant as many cultivated plants and fruit trees as possible in their gardens and summer cottages. Good for those who live in the south or in central Russia. But what about the northerners? Is it really possible to say goodbye to the dream of fresh vegetables from your garden forever? In no case! Even in the North, it is quite possible to grow fruits and vegetables. You just need to know how to do it. And the unique book "Garden of the North" will help you with this. Here you will find information about the climatic features of the north and those cultivated plants that can be grown there, about the characteristics of the soil and specific agricultural techniques that will allow you to harvest a rich harvest, as well as about the methods of cultivating individual crops. By purchasing this book, you will not be disappointed.
Table of contents
The given introductory fragment of the book Garden of the North provided by our book partner - the company Liters.
Section I. Climate and distribution of cultivated plants in the northern regions
In his correspondence with A. Bebel, F. Engels noted: “Between individual countries, regions and even localities there will always be a certain inequality in living conditions, which can be reduced to a minimum, but never completely eliminated. conditions than the inhabitants of the plains. "
The geographic environment is one of the permanent and necessary conditions of our life. Natural conditions in the territories are different, but constant. In these conditions, the living world of nature and its inanimate part are located, it is they who influence the placement of certain species of animals and plants.
The conditions for growing crops are significantly influenced by many reasons. An important role is played by the terrain. The relief is the main reason for the agro-industrial heterogeneity of lands, which causes a differentiated impact on soils as a result of their economic use.
The role of humidity in a particular geographic area is important. The zoning of the country's territory in terms of moisture reserves in soils and moisture supply conditions for growing crops was carried out by S.A. Verigo and L.A. Razumova. According to the moisture supply, the territory of the country was conditionally divided into three parts: excessively humid - about 50 percent of the area - the northern regions of mixed forests, taiga, tundra, the Arctic desert, high-mountain areas of unstable moisture - mixed forests, forest-steppe (about 20 percent of the area) of insufficient moisture - steppes, semi-deserts, deserts.
The length of the frost-free period is also important for the cultivation of cultivated plants. The duration of the frost-free period in Russia ranges from 45 days in Taimyr to 300 days in the North Caucasus. On the coasts, due to the moderating influence of the seas and oceans, excluding the Arctic Ocean, the frost-free period increases. A decrease in the frost-free period to the north and east limits the species composition of plants, biochemical processes in soils, etc.
The influence of human economic activity on the climate and microclimate should also be noted. Most of the economic activities - drainage of swamps, land reclamation, planting of forest belts and creation of reservoirs - have a narrowly local impact on climatic features, contributing to the creation of a local climate.
Artificial reservoirs significantly increase wind speed, lower temperatures and increase air humidity.
In areas of irrigated land, air temperatures are noticeably lower, and relative humidity rises. The drained bogs develop a local climate. For example, in Karelia, in the Moscow region, the frost-free period on drained bogs is shorter than on adjacent dry lands.
The local climate is also formed in arid regions due to field-protective forest belts. The wind speed decreases, the air temperature and evaporation decrease, and the relative humidity of the air rises.
Light, moisture, heat, oxygen and other elements that make up the climate are those necessary conditions, without which neither people, nor animals, nor plants can do. Different cultivated plants, depending on their requirements for heat and moisture, during the growing season need from 500 to 5000 degrees Celsius and a layer of water from 100 to 1000 mm. Different areas are prone to frosts, droughts, and excess moisture to varying degrees. Therefore, the types of vegetables in different regions of the Russian territory are different. In the tundra, in accordance with the climatic conditions, only early vegetables, cold-resistant forage crops and grasses can be grown. In wooded and forest-steppe regions, climatic conditions are favorable for a wider variety of vegetable crops.
Vegetable crops in our country are grown everywhere.
Even in the Far North, in unfavorable climatic conditions, vegetables are grown. They grow in the Altai mountains, in areas with a very short growing season. They are grown by gardeners of central Russia and southerners. Depending on the climatic conditions and soil composition, the picture of agriculture in our country changes, and the types of vegetable plants cultivated in the regions. Historically, agriculture in Russia has been conducted in extreme conditions. More than 70 percent of our country is located either in an extremely cold or excessively arid climate.
The quality and chemical composition of vegetables depends on external conditions and growing techniques. Different varieties of vegetables under the influence of climatic, environmental conditions, fertilizers, watering have a different chemical composition. For example, in carrots, depending on growing conditions, the dry matter content varies from 9 to 20%, the total amount of sugar is 4–9%, vitamins 4–6 mg for white cabbage, respectively, the numbers are as follows: 5–14, 3–5, 25–66 mg (a huge difference!) For onions 13–19, 4–10, 2–10 mg.
In different zones of our country, the rates of vegetable consumption are different. In the north, cabbage, carrots, beets, and potatoes are mainly grown. In the middle zone of Russia, tomato and cucumbers are added to these crops, pepper, eggplant, watermelon, melon and other thermophilic crops are widespread. In total, up to 70 species of various vegetable plants are grown in the middle and southern zones.
The southeast is famous for its melons and gourds, cabbage is the main plant in the northwestern regions.
Throughout the history of plant growing, vegetable growers have been trying to select crops and develop new ones that could give good yields in specific soil and climatic conditions.
A great role in this matter belongs to N.I. Vavilov - an outstanding scientist, organizer of biological and agricultural science, who developed new directions in the science of cultivation of cultivated plants, genetics, and other fields of biology. The research of K.A.Timiryazev, who worked out the foundations of the growth and development of many cultivated plants, played an important role. At the beginning of the 20th century, N.V. Rudnitsky and P.I. Lisitsyn became famous for their works on plant breeding, the creation of new varieties of cultivated plants, field and garden crops.
The self-taught scientist Efim Grachev, who became famous for breeding new varieties of vegetables, made a great contribution to the development of vegetable growing in Russia. RI Schroeder also went down in the history of plant growing, who generalized the experience of Russian truck farming by writing a major work "Russian vegetable garden, nursery and orchard" (1877), which has not lost its relevance today.
More than 70 varieties and hybrids of vegetables, which differ in cold resistance and early maturity, were bred by V.V. Apatiev.
Thanks to breeders, vegetable growing has advanced to Kamchatka, Chukotka, and the Khabarovsk Territory. The challenge for today's breeders is to promote as many crops as possible North. The varieties of vegetable crops have been developed for each soil-climatic zone of Russia, the varieties differ in terms of ripening, growing method - in open or closed ground, conditions of consumption - fresh, or for various types of processing, etc. Qualitatively new varieties have been created: cold-resistant, suitable for long-term storage, ultra-early ripening and resistant to some common diseases, varieties of cabbage, carrots with an increased content of carotene, varieties of beets before winter, and others. In the areas of collective production of vegetables, factories and factories for their processing arose.
Vegetables are grown in open and protected ground. In the open field they are grown in the spring-summer period for consumption and obtaining seeds, in the closed field - in the winter period. Vegetables are planted in open ground with seedlings; growing and forcing plants are characteristic for closed ones. Soil is soils. They are not the same on the territory of our country, like the climate. Any gardener will benefit from knowledge of the soil on which he is going to plant vegetables, as well as knowledge of soils in general, more precisely, knowledge of the basics of soil science. Therefore, our story will go on about soils.
Soils. Russia is the birthplace of modern soil science. At first, soils were named by color, because the soil has a wide variety of colors, changes depending on the movement from north to south and in other directions, as well as inside - from horizon to horizon. The color of soils depends on minerals, rocks, and colored residual deposits. Russian soil scientists distinguished from the very beginning podzol, black soil, chestnut soils. These designations were introduced by V.V.Dokuchaev, who became the founder of soil science, in the 70s – 80s of the 19th century. Well, podzol, of course, comes from the word "ash", a substance that is distinguished by a grayish-white color. Black earth also raises no questions - black earth, as the people called these soils. Chernozems include a variety of soils - floodplain, steppe, swampy, mountain meadow, soils of treeless areas in the southern part of the forest zone, etc. The soils of dry steppes are called chestnut.
The modern soil cover is the result of a long and complex development of nature as a whole. Nowhere in the world are the phenomena of latitudinal zoning in the soil cover so vividly reflected as in Russia, thanks to its length from north to south, the predominance of flat relief and the compactness of the land. The manifestation of latitudinal zoning in the soil cover of our country, that is, the order of changing soil types from north to south, is not repeated in individual provinces, although individual soil types and their mutual spatial arrangement have much in common. For example, in the forest-steppes of the Russian Plain, gray forest soils, podzolized, leached, and typical powerful chernozems interspersed with bog soils are widely represented. In Central and Eastern Siberia, permafrost-taiga soils are distinguished, to the east of the Urals and the Caspian, brown soils of semi-deserts. In the north, the soils are podzolic, in the Caspian lowland - salt marshes. All taiga soils have a thin layer of humus, a low content of minerals, and high acidity. As a result, natural fertility is low, but podzolic soils are very susceptible to fertilizers and, with proper agricultural technology, can give high yields of potatoes, rye, oats, flax, forage grasses and vegetables.
In short, we can say: there is a great variety of very different soils on the territory of Russia. On the soil map of our country, almost half is painted in yellow, gray, whitish colors inherent in swampy and forest lands. Whitish or yellow land is poor land, difficult, which must be worked on in order to make a decent harvest on it. Chemical analysis shows acidity of such soils, which is the main obstacle to plant growth.
Podzolic soils can be sod, gray, forest, meadow, peat-boggy. They have little humus (humus), that is, the organic part that creates food for plants. Such soils are common throughout the north and up to those regions of central Russia where forests end and hilly forest-steppe or grassy steppe begins - from Arkhangelsk and Lower Pechora to Mordovia and Oka, from Karelia to the middle reaches of the Desna.
Chernozems begin south of Kursk, Voronezh, Ulyanovsk, at first depleted, then rich in humus. The black earth is rich and generous in harvests. The lighter it is, the more avaricious it will give birth to bread and potatoes, the more difficult it is to get the product grown on it.
Zones, or the geographical concept of a vegetable garden. Based on the soil and climatic features of our territory, it was conditionally divided into zones, introducing the concepts of the North, Non-Black Earth, Black Earth Belt, Far East, Siberia, etc. The law of soil zoning was formulated by V. V. Dokuchaev. "... as, - wrote he, - all the names of the elements: water, earth, fire, air, as well as the plant and animal worlds bear the indelible features of the law of world zoning, then soils - chernozems, podzols, etc. should be located on the earth's surface zonal, in the strictest dependence on the climate , vegetation, etc. The reality justifies this to a greater extent than one might expect. "
He published a classification where for the first time soil zones merged and coincided with zones of nature, zones of natural history, as he wrote, "... to such an extent closely and amicably that it is difficult to expect greater love even from the most faithful spouses, from the most exemplary children to their parents. . In these zones we see the highest manifestation of love. "
The North is a cold and cold-temperate zone. Indoor vegetable growing and focal farming are developed here. Low heat demanding crops are grown in these places - radishes, spinach, onions, turnips, early potatoes, legumes - crops with a short growing season. Since there is little heat in the North, the microclimate is especially important for the placement of crops, which develops depending on the nature of the surface - depressions and slopes.
Non-black earth is a zone of podzolic soils belonging to the temperate zone. It includes the middle and northern parts of Russia. Here crops with medium-long and long growing seasons are grown, as well as medium-late crops - corn, sunflower, soybeans, late crops.
In the zone of the forest-steppe and steppe, which is also called the chernozem strip, there is a hot dry summer, a wide variety of types of vegetables, corn, sunflowers, and also melons and gourds are widespread.Attempts are being made, and very successfully, to promote southern heat-loving vegetables here, such as sweet peppers and eggplants.
But specifically about the cultivation of vegetables in each of the named zones - northern, non-chernozem, black earth - we will tell you in separately published books. For now, let's return to vegetable growing in general.
Information from the history of vegetables and gardening
AP Chekhov wrote: "If every person on a piece of his land would do everything he can, how beautiful our land would be." And Fyodor Dostoevsky said: "If you want to reborn humanity for the better, almost making people out of animals, then give them earth and you will achieve your goal."
With the onset of new times in Russia, private farmsteads of peasants have turned into small subsistence farms for the production of vegetables, which help to survive, despite all kinds of political troubles and economic fluctuations in the country. Food from a personal backyard, according to statistics, feeds 70 million Russians. Back in the 19th century, Thomas Jefferson, US President, noted: "Smallholders are the most valuable part of the state." Small landowners now produce almost half of all agricultural products in Russia, including 90% of potatoes, 76% of vegetables and fruits.
A person should consume at least 600 g of vegetables per day, which are a source of food biologically active substances: vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids, fiber in combination with pectins. They are able to stimulate appetite and influence the secretory function of the food glands. Every gardener should know everything about vegetables, grow them not blindly, but knowing about the phenomena that occur both inside plants and in soils, be able to choose the right varieties for their site, apply the necessary agrotechnical techniques, rationally use and store the fruits of the land. " Our strength, - said M. M. Prishvin, - is in the interior of the earth. "
We value the taste, quality and nutritional properties of vegetables, but few of us know that the systematic cultivation of wild plants began around 10,000 BC. e., when our ancestors, tired of meat food, began to domesticate plants, sowing the land around their camps. To cultivate the soil, they invented tools that improved with the development of agriculture. Cultivated varieties of millet, barley, wheat, corn, rice, flax, legumes were bred from wild plants, and cabbage, beets, beans became the constant food of our ancestors. Bread, for example, which is a staple food in many countries around the world, appeared as early as 5000 BC. e. Ancient Egyptians are referred to as ancient bread eaters. They also used boiled cabbage before meals, so that the wine would not affect their stomachs in the most unfavorable way. The culture of barley is 9000 years old. In India, he and rice were called "immortal sons of heaven." Biscuits were baked from barley, fried grains were eaten with fruit juice and cottage cheese. It is cultivated in the fields of many countries of the world today. For Mexicans, bread is made from corn, which was a mass food of the ancient Mayans and Incas.
Europeans preferred rye flour and oatmeal. Already in the seventh millennium BC. e. the potato was known in Chile and Peru. And the finds of archaeologists indicate that the Indians, who cultivated potatoes two millennia earlier, preferred to eat it in dried form. And since the sixteenth century, potatoes have become a staple food for the poor in many European countries.
For several millennia BC. e. cultivated legumes in South America. By the third millennium BC. e. include the use of garlic and onions. Bread and onions were the staple food of farmers in Mesopotamia. Onions were planted even in the royal gardens. For half a thousand years BC. e. in Peru, at least three varieties of tomatoes were used in food. In Egypt and later in Europe, for quite some time, the tomato was just an ornamental plant.
For over 300 years, cucumbers have been known, which appeared in India. They were also eaten by the builders of the Egyptian pyramids. They were also imperial food. For example, the emperor Tiberius had portable greenhouses in which cucumbers were grown and then preserved in a special way. Pumpkins, melons, peppers and many other vegetables were also known for many thousands of years BC.
We cannot imagine our table without vegetables. According to the established norms, each of us must consume 32-50 kg of cabbage, 25-32 kg of tomatoes, 20 kg of watermelons and melons, 6-10 kg of carrots, up to 3 kg of sweet pepper, 10-13 kg of cucumbers, 5-10 kg of beets, 6-10 kg of onions, 5-8 kg of green peas, from one to two kg of spicy vegetables and from 3 to 5 kg of other vegetable plants. Is it worth repeating that vegetables, the most important food product, are of great dietary and healing value. They supply our body with vitamins, organic acids and other substances on which the absorption of food by humans depends. Salts of sodium, potassium, calcium, which they contain in large quantities, neutralize the excess of acids formed when consuming meat foods rich in proteins. The vegetables themselves contain a lot of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. They are rich in legumes - beans, peas. Vegetables, as it were, alkalize the body, acting in the same way as milk, fermented milk products, fruits and berries.
Vitamins are involved in all vital processes in the body. They affect the cardiovascular, central nervous, digestive and endocrine systems. They play an important role in the treatment of serious diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, stomach and duodenal ulcers. Vegetables contain: vitamin C - ascorbic acid, vitamin P, which unites a group of various plant substances, - flavones, kakhetins, anthocyanins, etc., A, PP - nicotinic acid, almost the entire group of vitamin B, vitamin K. Vitamins are found in vegetables in very favorable ratios, and this is important with a balanced vitamin diet, that is, when they enter the body in a complex and in the required amount. Raw vegetables are especially useful, since, in addition to those listed, they contain vitamin U (U), which effectively acts in the treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and prevents the development of these diseases. Raw vegetables also contain tatronic acid, which prevents the conversion of carbohydrates into fat.
Mineral substances that make up the skeleton and give it strength, as well as being an integral part of blood hemoglobin, hormones, enzymes, are found in spinach, dill, horseradish, sorrel, collard greens. In general, vegetables contain more than 50 chemical elements. The Japanese, who widely use vegetables, and in Japan, more than 150 types of various vegetable dishes, have a long life expectancy. Asians, Africans, all peoples who prefer vegetable dishes are less likely than residents of other countries to suffer from diabetes, atherosclerosis, and are less prone to obesity.
In modern dietary nutrition, there are currently two areas - gourmet European cuisine and vegetarianism, which recommends the use of raw plant foods. The essence of the contradictions between these areas lies in the determination of the daily intake of protein, which is more in meat than in plant products. A lot is being said now about separate nutrition, about the dangers of meat in general, about the fact that food products should be taken into account not in terms of calorie content, but in terms of bioenergetic potential, the postulate of the body replenishing the same amount of calories that was lost is being revised. Raw food retains more vitamins and other nutrients than boiled or fried foods, because cooking biologically devalues food. Proteins are much more difficult to assimilate from cooked foods; boiled food tastes different from raw food. An increasing number of nutritionists are promoting the raw food diet. And here, of course, the role of vegetables is great. Vegetable crops, which are assigned the role of medicinal ones, are especially valuable. They occupy an increasing place in personal plots. Is it bad to have a medicine right in your garden, and not look for it in pharmacies!
As for the now fashionable separate nutrition, its essence is not to eat proteins and carbohydrates, proteins and fats, proteins and sugar together, but to take starchy foods separately from protein foods, correctly combine the food taken so that it is easily absorbed by the body. In this regard, we give the classification of vegetables in accordance with the table of Herbert Shelton, the founder of the theory of curative fasting and promoter of the theory of separate nutrition.
He refers to protein vegetables as nuts, mature beans, soybeans, peanuts. Suppliers of carbohydrates, i.e. starches and sugars, are starchy vegetables - ripe peas, all ripe beans except soybeans, all kinds of potatoes, squash, pumpkin, artichokes. Semi-starches include eggplants, turnips, rutabagas. Moderately starchy - cauliflower, carrots, goat bred. Soy, sunflower, corn are considered to be the suppliers of fats to our body. Our body gets acids from tomatoes and sauerkraut.
All juicy vegetables are non-starchy. These are lettuce, cauliflower, spinach, turnips, broccoli (asparagus), green corn, cucumbers, parsley, green onions, garlic, asparagus, green peas, melon, watermelons, green vegetables (sorrel, turnip leaves, beet leaves, eggplant, radish, pea leaves and other legumes).
Vegetables are the ancient fuel of the human body
The gardener needs to have a stock of information on plant botany in order to correctly apply certain agrotechnical techniques on his site. Many people remember something from the lessons of botany. There is no doubt that many people know: according to their lifespan, plants are annual, biennial and perennial, they are herbaceous and semi-shrubs in different plants, they eat either leaves, then stems, then rhizomes, then bulbs, then inflorescences, then fruits.
But not everyone knows the following classification well enough. According to their botanical properties, plants are divided into ...
nightshade - tomato, pepper, potatoes, physalis, eggplant
cabbage, or cruciferous - turnips, radishes, rutabagas, radishes, horseradish, mustard, watercress and, of course, all types of cabbage
onions - various types of onions, garlic
pumpkin - melon, watermelon, cucumber, pumpkin, zucchini, squash
celery, or umbrella - carrots, parsley, celery, dill, parsnips, fennel, cumin, anise, sorrel, coriander, lovage
legumes, or moths - beans, bean, peas
aster, or Asteraceae - lettuce, tarragon, artichoke, Jerusalem artichoke, oat root, scorzoner
quinoa, or haze - beets, spinach
clear or labiate - peppermint, lemon balm, basil, thyme, rosemary, savory, snakehead, marjoram, stachis
buckwheat - rhubarb and sorrel
bluegrass, or cereal - sugar corn
borage - cucumber herb
mushrooms - champignons, oyster mushrooms, truffle.
Vegetable crops are also grouped according to their relationship to environmental conditions - temperature, moisture, light, nutritional requirements, ripening times.
In relation to environmental conditions, vegetables are classified as heat-loving, cold-resistant, heat-resistant, drought-resistant and demanding on moisture, shade-tolerant and demanding on light.
Distinguish between early, mid and late ripening crops and varieties. Depending on which organ of the vegetable plant is eaten, the following are distinguished:
fruit - cucumber, zucchini, eggplant, squash, corn, beans, beans, peas. This also includes tomato, melon, pumpkin, watermelon
leafy and leafy - cabbage and collard, lettuce, spinach, rhubarb, sorrel, parsley and leafy celery, perennial onions
onions - onions, garlic
root vegetables - beets, carrots, turnips, rutabagas, radishes, radishes, parsnips, root celery and parsley, etc.
escaping - cauliflower, asparagus
mushrooms - champignon, truffle, oyster mushroom
The length of the daylight period is of great importance in the life of plants. In the north, the growing season is confined to the conditions of a long day, in the south, plants grow and develop in conditions of a short day.
According to the demand for heat, vegetables are divided into 5 groups:
frost and winter-hardy plants - perennial vegetable crops rhubarb, sorrel, asparagus, horseradish, garlic, perennial onions. Their underground organs withstand winter frosts. For a long time they are able to withstand temperatures of minus 8-10 degrees Celsius
cold-resistant - biennial cabbage plants root crops - carrots, beets, root parsley, onions green crops - spinach, lettuce, watercress
semi-cold-resistant, or intermediate - vegetable plants that occupy an intermediate position between cold-resistant and heat-demanding vegetable crops - dill, potatoes. The terrestrial part of the potato is demanding for heat, but the tubers grow and develop under the same conditions as cold-resistant plants.
heat-demanding - vegetables of the nightshade family (tomato, pepper, eggplant, cucumber, melon pear, zucchini, squash)
heat-resistant plants - watermelon, corn, beans, pumpkin, melon.
In the open ground, the thermal regime is improved by selecting land plots - southern or northern slopes, creating ridges and ridges, mulching the soil, using curtain crops, forest belts, film shelters. In protected ground, the thermal regime is maintained by applying technical heating of the soil. To increase frost resistance and cold resistance, pre-sowing hardening of seeds, hardening of seedlings are used, they are fed with phosphorus and potassium.
According to the requirements for the light regime, vegetables are divided into the following subgroups:
very demanding - watermelon, melon, tomato, pepper, cauliflower, eggplant, zucchini, corn, beans, peas, cucumber. These are mostly plants with a relatively short growing season. Least demanding - lettuce, spinach, rhubarb, green onions, parsley. They can produce good yields on soils of medium fertility.
Plants for cold northern rooms
Cryptomeria is one plant suitable for a cold northern room.
As in other rooms with poor heating, in the northern rooms there is no need to create additional conditions for plants with a pronounced dormant period.
As mentioned in the previous article, the northern rooms have the least amount of sunlight, so their conditions are optimal for shade-tolerant and shade-loving species.
These two characteristics - a pronounced dormant period and shade tolerance - are most typical for plants originating from dry subtropics (see the article "Plants for cold eastern and western rooms"), while cold northern rooms with large windows are well suited for more light-loving representatives of the cool subtropical climate.
In addition to the listed species, you can grow in cold northern rooms:
Without creating special conditions - the least light-loving species, for which cold eastern rooms are optimal.
With additional illumination - other types for which cold oriental rooms are optimal. Plants for cold southern rooms - only next to the phytolamp.
With additional artificial heating in winter - plants for which the conditions of warm northern, eastern and western rooms are optimal.
How to choose climbing plants?
When choosing climbing plants for your balcony, you need to take into account the factors that affect their growth and flowering. Namely, a balcony opens onto the light or shady side of the street, whether it is glazed or not.
If the balcony is not glazed, then when planning the planting of plants, you need to take into account the strength of the wind blowing there. This is important because some plants, such as clematis, whose shoots break easily, are unlikely to thrive in strong winds. To make flowers look beautiful against the background of the walls, you need to select them in contrast to the color of the wall. So, against the background of red brick, white or yellow flowers will be good.
For growing on a balcony, if it is not glazed, it is better to select unpretentious and hardy plants. They can be annual or perennial.
For sunny, lighted balconies, annuals are suitable: nasturtium, ornamental beans, sweet peas, morning glory, from perennials - actinidia, honeysuckle, Chinese lemongrass.
Ivy is good for shaded balconies. It can withstand strong winds, but it needs to be cleaned for the winter as it is sensitive to frost. Compared to ivy, girlish grapes are unpretentious and hardy, and their unusually beautiful autumn outfit will decorate any balcony. On a north-facing balcony, these plants should be positioned so that they do not block the sunlight. For example, at the wall of a building on which a support grid needs to be reinforced, or at the corners.
In the southern regions of the country, the balcony can be decorated with such beautiful plants as climbing roses and wisteria, but they are hardly suitable for the middle lane.